U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Additional information for health care providers on appropriate and safe use of dental X-ray imaging exams includes:
- The use of cone-beam computed tomography in dentistry: An advisory statement from the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs (August 2012)12,13
- The joint FDA and American Dental Association Guidelines for the Selection of Patients for Dental Radiographic Examinations-200414 provides information on how to determine if X-rays are appropriate (justified) for a given patient. While these guidelines do not mention CBCT specifically, many of the general recommendations apply to dental CBCT.
- Recommendations specific to the use of dental CBCT can be found in the Joint Position Statement of the American Association of Endodontists and the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology USE OF CONE-BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN ENDODONTICS15,16
- Position statement of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on selection criteria for the use of radiology in dental implantology with emphasis on cone beam computed tomography (2012)17
- Based on data from many countries, including the U.S., the European Commission's SEDENTEXCT project has developed a training program18,19 and "Radiation Protection: Cone Beam CT for Dental and Maxillofacial Radiology; Evidence Based Guidelines 2011"20,21
- Academy of Dental Therapeutics and Stomatology's: A Clinician's Guide to Understanding Cone Beam Volumetric Imaging (CBVI)22
- The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)’s Dental Radiology- X Rays23,24contains information for health professionals to help protect patients from unnecessary radiation exposure in dental imaging including CBCT.
- The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) Policy on Patient Safety25,26 gives general guidelines on safe use of dental imaging.
- FDA Medical Imaging: Pediatric X-ray Imaging27
- American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report No.3. Assessment of display for medical imaging systems. Website: www.aapm.org/pubs/reports/OR_03.pdf
- American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report No. 1. Phantoms for performance evaluation and quality assurance of CT scanners. Website: www.aapm.org/pubs/reports/OR_03.pdf
- Gray, J. E., Archer, B. R., Hobbs, B. B., Mettler, F. A., & et al. (2005). Reference values for diagnostic radiology: Application and impact. Radiology, 235, 354-358.
- International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) Publication 84. Pregnancy and Medical Radiation. Website: www.icrp.org/docs/ICRP_84_Pregnancy_s.pps
- International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) Report 87. CT Dose Management. Website: www.icrp.org/docs/ICRP_87_CT_s.pps
- National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP). (2004). Structural shielding design for medical x-ray imaging practices report 147.
- New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. (2001). Compliance guidelines for computed tomography quality control. Website: www.state.nj.us/dep/rpp/download/ctcgd.pdf
- Prasad, K.N., Cole, W.C., & Haase, G.M. (February 2004). Radiation protection in humans: Extending the concept of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) from dose to biological damage. British Journal of Radiology, 914, 97-9.
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). (2006). Performance standards for ionizing radiating products. Code of Federal Regulations: 21 CFR Sect. 1020.33. Website: www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=1020.33